Hid Light Bulbs

HID light bulbs (or HID light lamps as people in the lighting industry refer to them) are defined as high intensity discharge lights, meaning that they produce more light than a regular light bulb. HID refers to the electric arc that makes the light show up. The light actually shows because of salts made of metal, which are ignited, and then turned to vapor in the lamp chamber. HID lights are said to produce light that is more similar to sunlight than traditional halogen lights.

HID lights are typically used to provide outside lighting, for example, in landscaping, or as security lighting. They are also the preferred method of lighting for street lighting, alleys, parking lots, and shopping facilities. Because the light they give off seems to go farther, lights better in foggy weather, and is cheaper, many municipalities are choosing to install HID lighting vs. incandescent bulbs.


HID lights are preferred by many individuals all over the world because they produce more light for the amount of power used than typical lights which are halogen bulbs. This creates an energy savings in addition to the increased visibility. HID lights are a blue-ish white beam of light, and it is estimated that these lights give off 300% more light as a halogen bulb. HID lights are helpful to see farther in bad lighting or difficult weather conditions. HID light bulbs are also more efficient, producing more light using less power. One of the greatest benefits is that HID light bulbs run for approximately 1000 hours longer than a normal halogen light bulb. HID bulbs are also may be better for the environment also because they can be recycled, although you must handle HID light bulbs with care when transporting.


One bad thing that HID lights are associated with is that they usually contain mercury, which is difficult to dispose of. There are several problems associated with mercury spills, but mainly, it is extremely difficult to clean up. You must wear plastic gloves and be very careful with the cleanup. HID light lamps unfortunately contain the most mercury of bulbs created today, so you must always handle them with care. Also, HID light bulbs are more costly not only to purchase as a consumer, but also to produce and repair. Although they last longer, many shoppers are turned off by the high cost and choose other routes for lighting.


For this research the focus is on combining

For this research the focus is on combining the development of dynamic software created in response to user actions, with object oriented, rule based and semantic web techniques. This helps solve problems of mismatch of data between object oriented and relational database systems identified by Ambler [1]. The information is highly structured. Visualisation of this structure in order to represent the relationship between things clarifies the semantics. The meaning can be seen not just by the name of each item but also by the relationship of other items to it. It is envisaged that this taxonomy will provide a design costing capability, but the taxonomy and the techniques used to put it together could be re-used for other purposes. Eventually this taxonomy could become part of an overall ontology. At first this would be a light-weight ontology and this could be evaluated for usefulness before deciding on whether it would need to be more structured. Hunter [2] evaluates engineering ontologies and gives examples. Issues involved in visualisation of light weight ontologies are examined by Fluit et al. [3]. An important reason for creation of an open standards central ontology is that it can be accessed by many different applications. The open standard OWL (Web Ontology Language) is explained by Bechhofer and Carroll [4]. Research of others in this field have been investigated Corcho and G'mez-P'rez [5] and Corcho et al. [6], Noy [7].

The approach involves adapting or creating software systems to provide the visual editor for the source tree, and model builders would create a model by editing this. By doing so they would create a generic model for a particular modelling subject. This is enabled by provision of translation software to translate the taxonomy into a decision support and modelling system. The model users could then use this decision support and modelling system to create their models. These models are a more specific subset of the generic model, and could be applied for their own analyses. Current research is on provision of a translation mechanism to convert information or models into other languages (primarily web based), and to visualise this information. This mechanism has been used in projects with two major aerospace companies. Examples of this are shown later in the article.

The alternative approach involves creation of an elaborator that can output code, in various computer languages or a Meta-programming syntax such as metaL [8] or Simkin [9]. The elaborator needs only a few pieces of information. All information other than that dependant on user interaction, including the names of each node and its relationships to other nodes, needs to be held in a standardised data structure, e.g. a database or structured text file(s). A visual interface to this ontology is required so that model builders can maintain and extend it.

Each node (elaborator) needs to be provided with the following pieces of information -

1) A trigger sent as a result of user action. This is a variable containing a list of value(s) dependant on decisions or requests made by the user the last time the user took action. Each time the user makes a request or a decision, this causes the production of a tree or branch to represent this. This trigger variable is passed around the tree or branch as it is created. The interface to enable this is connected to and reads from the ontology.

2) Knowledge of the relationship between this node and its' immediate siblings e.g. parents, children, attributes. So the elaborator knows which other elaborators to send information to, or receive from.

3) Ability to read equations. These would be mathematical descriptions of a calculation that contains terms that are items in the ontology. The equation would be contained within an attribute of a class, e.g. The class Material Cost would have an attribute Material Cost Calculation that holds an equation.

4) Basic rules of syntax for the language of the code to be output.

The way the elaborator finds the information held in 2 and 3 is dependent on the action that is taken in 1. Thus, if a suitable ontology is created the basis of the rules of construction of the code to be created are defined 4, and the user has made choices, the user needs to take no further action and just wait for the necessary code to be output.

The translation mechanism is illustrated on our web site http://www.cems.uwe.ac.uk/~phale/ using a simple example.

1 Ambler, S. W. (2003). The Object-Relational Impedance Mismatch, http://www.agiledata.org/essays/impedanceMismatch.html.

2 Hunter, A. (2002). Engineering Ontologies, http://www.cs.ucl.ac.uk/staff/a.hunter/tradepress/eng.html.

3 Fluit, C., Marta S., Harmelen F. V. (2003). Supporting User Tasks through Visualisation of Light-weight Ontologies, http://www.cs.vu.nl/~frankh/abstracts/OntoHandbook03Viz.html.

4 Bechhofer, S. and Carrol, J. (2004). Parsing owl dl: trees or triples?, Proceedings of the 13th international conference on World Wide Web, NY, USA: 266 - 275.

5 Corcho, O. and G'mez-P'rez, A. (2000). A Roadmap to Ontology Specification Languages, Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management, Chicago, USA.

6 Corcho, O., Fern?ndez-L?pez, M., G'mez-P'rez, A. (2003). Methodologies, Tools and Languages For Building Ontologies. Where is their Meeting Point?, Data and Knowledge Engineering, 46: 41-64.

7 Noy, N.F. (2004). Semantic Integration: A Survey Of Ontology-Based Approaches. SIGMOD Record, Special Issue on Semantic Integration, 33 (4).


Remember, they are bog plants, not water plants

<p>Remember, they are bog plants, not water plants (big difference!).</p>

<p>At that point, I was very puzzled.</p>

<p>If you were to explore the United States alone, you will find carnivorous plants in nearly all of the 50 states, including Hawaii and Alaska.</p>

<p>Bogs, on the other hand, contain fresh water, usually bubbling up from an underground spring, and can be found on mountaintops and other places far away from the ocean.</p>

<p>Secret T5 Fluorescent Lamp外部リンク2: Brighten their days with full sun. Keep the light source about 6 to 8 inches above the plant, and keep it on for 12-14 hours per day.</p>

<p>In that case, local tap water will do just fine. You need to know what type of plant you have to determine whether it requires winter dormancy or if it needs to be indoors during those cold winter months. Remember, not all carnivorous plants are created equal. So, it is important that you give these guys enough root space. In most cases, this would be in March.</p>

<p>Nearly all carnivorous plants grow in bogs, which are constantly wet. It does not need to be blessed by a Tibetan monk, but it should at least have low levels of minerals (less than 100 parts per million).</p>

<p>SECRET LED High Mast Lamp外部リンク2: Brighten their days with full sun. Anything less than that will cause your plants to struggle for survival. You can adjust the recipe by adding more perlite or other inert matter to increase the drainage. If you see a bog in nature, you will notice that there are no trees in it.</p>

<p>The only types of carnivorous plants that are not exposed to full sun in the wild are Asian Pitcher Plants, Butterworts and some species of Sundews.</p>

<p>Most people confuse bogs with marshes.</p>

<p>But, before your plants start soaking their little feet, make the water is relatively pure. This is true with Asian Pitcher Plants.</p>

<p>One more thing: some carnivorous plants prefer not to have their feet dunked in water. Other species have long deep taproots.</p>

<p>This soil recipe is sufficient for 80% of all carnivorous plants.</p>

<p>I immediately knew which plant she had seen, so I held up a Purple Pitcher Plant and she exclaimed, "Yes, that is the plant I saw!"</p>

<p>I then told her how easy it was to grow that plant outdoors all year round, to which she replied, "But during the winter, you have to bring them indoors, right?"</p>

<p>"Why would you need to do that?"</p>

<p>"Because it will get too cold for them," she stated with authority. It gets much colder in Canada than it does in Oregon. Without their winter rest, they get very cranky and may fail to grow in spring. If you are like me, you might have several thousand. So, all plants growing in a bog are exposed to full sun. This will prevent fungal infections and increase sunlight to the base of the plant. So, if you want to duplicate what they experience out in nature, you need to provide constantly wet soil.</p>

<p>Secret #4: Season your plants. Marshes typically are closer to the ocean and contain slightly salted water. Use a tray, bowl, saucer or any container that holds water.</p>

<p>Each secret is an important part of the foundation on which you can grow beautiful carnivorous plants all year round. When you follow these simple steps, your carnivorous plants # will have no choice but grow into healthy and beautiful plants that you can be proud of!</p>


<p> </p>

<p>Hopefully, your plant came with a tag that identifies its species. Think of how you feel when you do not get enough sleep. If the water has a lot of naturally occurring minerals or additives to make the water soft, consider hooking your hose up to a reverse-osmosis unit.</p>

<p>Secret #5: Repot yearly and hold the fertilizer.</p>

<p>Lets start with sun.</p>

<p>You learned:</p>

<p>Secret #1: Correctly identify the type of carnivorous plant you have.</p>

<p>Now you know what types of carnivorous plants you have, give it the proper sunlight.


Moving message display are designed to be installed into environments

<p>Moving message display are designed to be installed into environments where vast amounts of information need to be conveyed to large audiences both quickly and efficiently, also in the world of indoor and outdoor displays. This gives you enormous flexibility for creating interesting text message on Moving message display.</p><p>Moving message displays are becoming very popular in the areas like airports, banks, auctions, church, receptions, promotions factories, companies, groups, government and high streets outlets to transmit information to large groups of people quickly. This is possible because of technology called LED lighting, which stands for light emitting diodes. The important thing to remember here is that LED technology is very much efficient than standard incandescent lighting.</p><p>LED technology is one of the most advanced technology today as they are very efficient and do not waste any electricity in their production of visible bight and eye-catching light.</p><p>As a result, in addition to being extremely bright and eye catching, Moving Message Displays, using this technology, also energy-efficient with attractive design that that be clearly seen with great distance.</p><p>Standard color comes in red, yellow, or green, but any combination in multi color scheme can be chosen to make display more effective and brighter in sense. In addition to this, size is also variable. Character sizes usually range according to the need. The technology behind LED moving message displays is so advanced, there are literally thousand of variations on the standard electronic display. Jayex Technology , the leading manufacturer of Moving Message Display has variety of options that give wide choice.</p><p>Most importunately, these Moving message Displays are easy to set up , program and handle, they allow the outlet to simply and clearly present the scrolled text. Most Moving Message Displays are connected to local power supply and can switch on and off automatically at pre-programmed times. Moreover they can be controlled remotely that least concern about the location.</p>


The thin strips are inexpensive and easy to use

</p><p>Crest Whitestrips, $44: The thin strips are inexpensive and easy to use, but they do require a fair amount of discipline and patience. And you still need to either come back 6 months later for another teeth whitening or you're given some take home whitening items!?</p><p>BriteSmile a leading accelerated technique is $500-$600 for a one-hour treatment.50: two plastic ?Comfort-Fit Mouthguards?. It involves gas-plasma light technology developed by a NASA scientist. The downside is that you still get stuck with that fat $500 - $1,000 bill. Like many cosmetic products nowadays, many claims made are misleading. High peroxide levels are obviously more effective but can irritate gums and make teeth feel sensitive. Although, many dentists say that you get a whiter smile by repeated tray applications because the teeth whitening peroxide stays in contact with your teeth for longer periods of time.<p>Most whitening procedures use hydrogen peroxide (the same chemical used to bleach hair), or carbamide peroxide to lighten stains and brighten the natural colouring of your teeth. Less costly methods of tooth whitening can sometimes take weeks to work. They are a much more effective product once laser treatment or moulds have been used, in order to prevent discolouration. BUT, over brushing your teeth can cause the loss of tooth enamel and this can't be replaced. Eating and drinking foods that stain tooth enamel will speed up the decline more quickly.</p><p>TEETH WHITENING METHODS ? IN BRIEF</p><p>Laser Bleaching</p><p>?I'll be the first to admit, dental office teeth whitening has come a long way in the past 10 years. I would personally advise that like all over the counter methods it may take more time and effort than this due to the imprecise fit of the mouth trays. In general, the quicker the method of bleaching (as little as one hour) the more expensive it is.</p><p>Whitening Toothpastes: Let me just start off by saying that these have many drawbacks, particularly as they take a very long time to show any real results. You peel them off a plastic backing and stick them on your teeth for 30 minutes, twice a day. However, regularly using whitening toothpaste, which has a very small concentration of peroxide in it, will help keep teeth brighter for longer. Don't choose the overnight system if you are a light sleeper! The amount of carbamide peroxide in the gel can vary from 5% to 30%. You can either wear this overnight, or wear from one to two hours a day for two weeks. I will give you a few examples of the most successful brands available. After treatment the whiteness can last for years, but this does depend on your lifestyle. For example, Colgate's overnight system uses 10% which is a fairly low concentration. For example, the success of whitening toothpaste is directly related to how long and often you brush your teeth for. This teeth whitening procedure does work. A gel with 15% hydrogen peroxide is applied and then activated by light during three 20 minute sessions. They start from $300, but you have edison lamp外部リンク to watch out as some dentists will charge up LED Cooler外部リンク to $650 for these! The dentist takes an impression of your teeth, and subsequently makes a flexible plastic mould which has a thin space for the whitening fluid.</p>. A quote from BriteSmile: "good oral hygiene and regular professional care will help maintain the BriteSmile results for about two years"</p><p>Dentist Supervised Treatments</p><p>These are generally just as effective as well as being slightly cheaper.</p><p>Rembrandt Plus Superior Bleaching System, $32.</p><p>Over the Counter</p><p>The Food and Drug Administration prohibits products sold in drugstores from having a concentration higher than 3% for hydrogen peroxide and 10% for carbamide peroxide. However, they only have 5% hydrogen peroxide and therefore take 28 days to show results. Now, the most popular teeth whitening dental office procedure known as Laser Bleaching is a much shorter process. Wear them for 20 to 30 minutes twice a day and according to the packaging, ?expect results within a week?. Basically this teeth whitening procedure consists of the application of a concentrated peroxide gel onto your teeth, then for the next hour you sit in a dental chair with your mouth wide open, while a special light (usually argon) is shined onto the teeth whitening paste that in turn chemically reacts with the peroxide to complete the teeth whitening process in as short a time period as possible.